Data is stored on a hard drive in binary code, using 1s and 0s. The information is spread out on the magnetic layer of the disk(s) and are read or written by the read heads that 'float' above the surface thanks to the layer of air produced by the ultra fast rotation of the disk.

In writing mode, an electrical current travels via the heads and modifies the surface of the electric field by inscribing a 0 or a 1. In read mode, the process is reversed: the magnetic field transmits an electrical current to the read head, and this signal is then translated into a digital signal readable by the computer.

How data is stored on a hard drive


A traditional hard disk drive (HDD), sometimes referred to by its abbreviated names hard disk or hard drive, is a form of magnetic mass storage used primarily in computers, but also in some portable music players, video cameras, DVD players, and video game consoles etc.

Solid state drive (SSD) technology can also be used as hard drives, where data is stored on an array of chips attached directly to the circuit board. These are also found in music players, but also in mobile phones, tablets, and many modern smart devices.

Current standards

  • Technology: The magnetic hard drive represents today's predominant technology. Magnetic tapes and optical storage (CD/DVD) are most often used for data storage and backup in a professional environment.
  • Size: As well as the storage capacity of hard drives, the physical size of the device has also undergone significant evolutions during the last 50 years. The RAMAC was the size of two refrigerators, while the majority of today's hard drives measure 3"1/2 (3.5 inches, or 9 cm). The standard size for laptop drives is 2.5 inches. The boom in MP3 players and other portable devices have also contributed to the development of microdrives that measure only 1 inch!
  • Interface: The interface is an essential component of all hard drives because it links the motherboard to the hard drive. The type of interface, among other factors, determines the speed of information transfer. Just like the size and capacity of hard drives, interfaces are in constant evolution. For the sake of simplicity, we will only discuss the most common ones:
    • ATA/IDE: the most widespread interface until 2005 for personal computers, this type of interface has now been replaced by SATA interfaces.
    • SATA (serial ATA): the most common interface since 2005, it allows for faster transfer rates than the ATA,
    • SCSI (Small Computer System Interface): this interface allows the connection of various peripherals via an adaptor or SCSI controller.

Components of a hard disk drive

Components of a magnetic hard drive

A traditional magnetic hard drive is composed of two essential components:

  • A mechanical component:
    • The drives are double-sided circular trays, most often made of aluminium, covered by a magnetic layer where data is stocked and organised. These drives are placed around a rotary axis driven by a spindle motor. The speed of the rotation varies according to the brand and model of the hard drive at generally between 5,400 and 15,000 rotations per minute.
    • The read head/write head is another mobile component of the hard drive. They are steered by an actuator that is driven by a second motor. Their pivoting motions allows them to sweep the entire surface of the drives. The role of the arm is to position the heads on a certain path to have access to the information. It is important to note that the read heads are never in direct contact with the magnetic surface of the hard drive. Even light friction or a speck of dust is sufficient to damage a drive.
  • An electronic component: though the mechanical components are the most visible on a hard drive, the electronic component is just as important, because it handles the data transmission as well as procession and commands between the motherboard and the hard drive. Each hard drive has a microprocessor and an associative memory held on a printed circuit board (PCB). A signal processor handles the conversion of electric signals to digital signals.

Related articles

History of the hard drive

The hard drive is one of the most vital elements of all modern computers and is the heart of our job: data recovery. Our 30+ years of experience has given us the opportunity to work on almost all types and all brands of hard drives.

How do you repair a hard drive?

As time passes, a virus, a crash, or simply an internal error can jeopardise the integrity of a hard drive, both internal or external, and corrupt its data or make it inaccessible. Depending on the severity of the problem, it may be possible to perform a repair and recovery.

What to do when the hard drive is not recognised?

Sometimes our storage devices, hard drives, memory cards or other USB sticks are not recognised by the operating system, making it impossible to access our professional or personal data. Here is some essential advice about what to do when a drive is not recognised.

The SSD hard drive: a small revolution in the digital storage sector

The appearance of SSD hard drives was a small revolution in the computing microcosm, as it brought numerous improvements compared to mechanical hard drives that use rotation and electromagnetic technology to store data.

Prolonging the life of your SSD drive

By following the appropriate steps in the case of data loss involving an SSD drive, a company increases its chances of retrieving its data. In fact, the five following suggestions can be applied to SSD storage peripherals just as well as to traditional hard drives.

Start your data recovery now with a free consultation

Contact our team of experts. Ontrack accommodates everyone – from the largest enterprise or government organisation to individuals and everyone in between.

Step 1

Device Type
Step 2

Data Loss Reason
Step 3

Details & Evaluation

What type of device do you need data recovery for?

What is the main reason for your data loss?

Additional comments

* The free evaluation may not be possible. Please contact us or enter your details and we will contact you as soon as possible. In case of assistance please call: +852 5808 7353

1. Contact details

2. Shipping details

Would you like to start your FREE evaluation?:
Complimentary shipping is not available in your country.

For information on how we collect, process and retain your personal data, please see our Privacy Policy.